Environmental Guidelines for Industries
In order to help the concerned authorities and the entrepreneurs,it is necessary to frame certain broad guidelines for siting an industry.It is also necessary to identify the parameters that should be taken into account while setting up an industry.With this in view,the following environmental guidelines are recommended for siting of Industries to ensure optimum use of natural and man-made resources in sustainable manner with minimal depletion,degradation and/or destruction of environment.Those are in addition to those directives that are already in existence under the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act.
AREAS TO BE AVOIDED
In siting industries,care should be taken to minimise the adverse impact of the industries on the immediate neighbourhood as well as distant places.Some of the natural life sustaining systems and some specific land uses are sensitive to industrial impacts because of the nature and extent of fragility.With a view to protecting such an industrial sites shall maintain the following distances from the areas listed:
- Ecologically and/or otherwise sensitive areas:at least 25 km;depending on the geo-clmatic conditions the requisite distance hall have to be increased by the appropriate agency.
- Coastal areas:at least 1/2 km from High Tide Line.
- Flood Plain of the Riverine Systems:at least 1/2 km from flood plain or modified flood plain affected by dam in the upstream or by flood control systems.
- Transport/Communication System:at least 1/2 km from highway and railway.
- Major settlements(3,00,000 population):distance from settlements is difficult to maintain because of urban sprawl.At the time of siting of the industry if any major settlement's notified limit is within 50 km,the spatial direction of growth of the settlement for at least a decade must be assessed and the industry shall be sited at least 25 km from the projected growth boundary of the settlement.
Pre - requisite: State and Central Governments are required to identify such areas on a priority basis.
Ecological and/or otherwise sensitive areas include (i)Religious and Historic Places; (ii)Archaeological Monuments (e.g. identified zone around Taj Mahal); (iii)Scenic Areas; (iv)Hill Resorts; (v)Beach Resorts; (vi)Health Resorts; (vii)Coastal Areas rich in Coral,Mangroves,Breeding Grounds of Specific Species; (viii)Estuaries rich in Mangroves,Breeding Ground of Specific Species; (ix)Gulf Areas; (x)Biosphere Reserves; (xi)National Parks and Sanctuaries; (xii)Natural Lakes,Swamps; (xiii)Seismic Zones; (xiv)Tribal Settlements; (xv)Areas of Scientific and Geological interest; (xvi)Defence Installations,specially those of security importance and sensitive to pollution; (xvii)Border Areas (International) and (xviii)Airports.
Economic and social factors are recognized and assessed while siting an industry. Environmental factors must be taken into consideration in industrial siting. Proximity of water sources,highway,major settlements,markets for products and raw material resources is desired for economy of production,but all the above listed systems must be away for environmental protection.Industries are, therefore, required to be sited,striking a balance between economic and environmental considerations.In such a selected site,the following factors must be recognized.
- No forest land shall be converted into non-forest activity for the sustenance of the industry(Ref:Forest Conservation Act, 1980).
- No prime agricultural land shall be converted into industrial site.
- Within the acquired site the industry must locate itself at the lowest location to remain obscured from general sight.
- Land acquired shall be sufficiently large to provide space for appropriate treatment of waste water still left for treatment after maximum possible reuse and recycle.Reclaimed(treated) wastewater shall be used to raise green belt and to create water body for aesthetics,recreation and if possible,for aquaculture.The green belt shall be 1/2 km wide around the battery limit of the industry.For industry having odour problem it shall be a kilometer wide.
- The green belt between two adjoining large scale industries shall be one kilometer.
- Enough space should be provided for storage of solid wastes so that these could be available for possible reuse.
- Lay out and form of the industry that may come up in the area must conform to the landscape of the area without affecting the scenic features of that place.
- Associated township of the industry mmust be created at a space having physiographic barrier between the industry and the township.
- Each industry is required to maintain three ambient air quality measuring stations within 120 degree angle between stations.
Siting Guidelines for Industries
Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Management Plan
For further information, please contact :
Government of India
Ministry of Environment & Forests
Environmental Impact Assessment Division
Paryawaran Bhawan, CGO Complex
Lodi Road, NEW DELHI - 110 003 INDIA